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2.1.7 What is enhanced rabies surveillance?

Enhanced rabies surveillance involves active surveillance, but also incorporates special efforts to meet specific disease management needs. Often, these have been applied to provide sufficient sampling scope and intensity to make more informed decisions to achieve rabies control and elimination objectives, for example sampling of bats [for examples see here] or wild mesocarnivores (for definition see here) such as raccoons and foxes in areas adjacent to oral rabies vaccination (ORV) zones. Typically, such enhanced surveillance is conducted within 80 km of ORV zones to prevent raccoon rabies from spreading to new areas in the U.S. Enhanced rabies surveillance included the following types of samples obtained from free-ranging meso-carnivores, without a known human or domestic animal exposure history: 1) animals brought to the attention of local field biologists, or collected by program cooperators (e.g., municipal officials, veterinarians, police, etc., with unusual behaviors suggestive of rabies, which typically have the highest rabies prevalence (among animals not involved in human exposure events); 2) fresh road kills; 3) animals live-captured during ORV monitoring, with gross lesions or behaviors suggestive of rabies; 4) targeted collection of surveillance samples from animals collected around a potentially new rabies focus; and 5) occasional nuisance animals trapped in areas of dense human habitation. Enhanced surveillance in this example represents a complement to passive rabies exposure-based surveillance to protect public health.


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[en]Version 1 Last updated December 2014[fr]Première version, dernière mise à jour Juin 2015